Lorsqu’un patient va subir une intervention chirurgicale, quel qu’en soit le type, il doit prendre en compte qu’une partie fondamentale de ce processus est l’acte anesthésique. Certaines des préoccupations majeures des patients avant de décider de subir une chirurgie sont les doutes sur l’anesthésie. Des questions comme, vais-je me réveiller ? Aurais-je de la douleur ? Elles sont normales et totalement compréhensibles.

Ensuite, nous allons tenter d’exposer les aspects les plus importants concernant l’anesthésie. De cette façon, nous espérons éclairer cette partie importante de la médecine dont le manque de connaissance peut provoquer la peur. Nous espérons ainsi éclairer les patients non seulement face à la chirurgie esthétique, mais aussi pour toute autre procédure nécessitant une anesthésie à l’avenir.

Qu’est-ce que l’anesthésie ?

L‘anesthésie consiste non seulement à administrer un médicament qui endort la personne, mais aussi un ensemble de tâches effectuées par l’anesthésiste, dont l’objectif fondamental est le plus important : la SÉCURITÉ du patient.

L’anesthésiologie est la science médicale qui prend soin des personnes qui vont être opérées. Cela comprend une étude adéquate du patient avant l’opération, l’application des soins nécessaires pendant l’opération et le contrôle d’une évolution postopératoire adéquate.

Quelle est la première étape ?

La première étape pour préparer le patient est l’entrevue avec l’équipe médicale, où cette dernière doit recueillir des informations sur son état de santé, les médicaments qu’il prend, les allergies aux médicaments ou aux aliments, s’il fume ou boit et l’historique des opérations précédentes. Dans cette interview, le patient doit donner des informations honnêtes. L’information du patient est la première étape vers une anesthésie plus sûre.

Après avoir recueilli cette information, l’équipe médicale décide de la technique d’anesthésie qui convient le mieux au patient, qu’il s’agisse d’anesthésie générale ou d’anesthésie locale avec sédation.

Quels sont les types d’anesthésie les plus fréquents ?

1. Anesthésie générale en chirurgie esthétique

Il consiste à administrer un médicament qui produit un état de sommeil ou une perte de conscience pendant l’opération, de sorte que le patient ne ressent pas de douleur. Pendant l’anesthésie générale, l’anesthésiste maintiens artificiellement la respiration du patient, contrôlant ses signes vitaux à tout moment. Après l’opération, le patient retrouve l’état de conscience, comme si c’était un sommeil profond.

Ce type d’anesthésie est utilisé dans les interventions chirurgicales esthétiques nécessitant une hospitalisation, telles que l’augmentation mammaire ou la réduction mammaire, ainsi que la rhinoplastie et l’abdominoplastie.

2. Anesthésie locale + sédation en chirurgie esthétique

L’anesthésie locale consiste à administrer certains médicaments, appelés anesthésiques locaux, au moyen d’une petite injection dans la zone à opérer. De cette façon, la sensation de douleur pendant l’opération est évitée.

Avec l’anesthésie locale, le processus consiste à administrer un médicament qui produit un état de sommeil, en maintenant les fonctions vitales du patient (respiration spontanée, tension artérielle, fréquence cardiaque …).

Ce type d’anesthésie est utilisé, entre autres, dans la chirurgie esthetique tunisie et ne nécessitent pas d’hospitalisation comme la blépharoplastie, l’otoplastie, la gynécomastie et la liposuccion.

3. Anesthésie locorégionale en chirurgie esthétique

Il consiste en l’injection d’anesthésiques locaux à travers une très fine aiguille à travers la peau. Contrairement à une anesthésie locale, on applique l’anesthésie à proximité des nerfs les plus grands ou de la moelle épinière (dans ce cas, nous parlons de la colonne vertébrale ou anesthésie péridurale) permettant ainsi de bloquer la sensibilité et la mobilité d’une zone particulière du corps.

Ce type d’anesthésie est utilisé dans des procédures telles que le lifting des cuisses et dans certaines interventions telles que l’abdominoplastie et la liposuccion.

Quelles sont les complications possibles de l’anesthésie ?

L’anesthésiste est peut-être l’une des spécialités médicales qui s’est le plus développée au cours des 40 dernières années, avec l’amélioration des techniques d’anesthésie, l’apparition de médicaments nouveaux et plus efficaces. Les nouvelles fonctionnalités de surveillance qui réduisent les complications et la mortalité chirurgicale se combinent avec les progrès techniques.

Cependant, comme toute science médicale, elle n’est pas exempte de complications, dont l’intensité et la durée peuvent varier.

 

62 thoughts on “Anesthésie : mieux la comprendre pour ne pas en avoir peur”

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